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In the second half of the 19th century, construction began on the Zemskaya (province) hospital in Samara, funded by the Samara province elected council (zemstvo). The hospital was built in the outskirts of the city and began to help the sick and suffering, regardless of their ethnicity or social status. Step by step, the hospital was expanded, mainly via wooden buildings,
and became the cornerstone of city’s healthcare. In 1886, a Pasteur anti-rabies station was established. It was the second in Russia (after Odessa) and the third in the world (after Paris).
On October 6, 1875, with ceremonial public prayer and speeches from the city fathers, the Province hospital was officially opened. The first Chief Physician of the province hospital was A.F. Kulesha. In 1890, there were 5 staff and 9 supernumerary resident physicians. In 1914-1919, many of the hospital staff were drafted into the army and fought in World War I and the Civil War.
In 1919, the medical department opened at Samara University. Almost all clinical departments were located in the hospital, which had been named after the prominent Russian surgeon N.I. Pirogov.
During World War II, the self-sacrificing work of hospital staff saved the lives of thousands of wounded. Although difficult, the hospital continued to improve its technical equipment during those years. Many hospital workers were drafted into the army and, upon their return, continued their honorable work during peacetime.
Starting in 1957, the look of the hospital began to change. Gradually, old wooden buildings were demolished and replaced by new stone ones. A surgical building for 200 beds was built in 1957. The maternity unit and new food unit were built in 1962. In 1981, the burn department was built.
In the early 1970s, many young doctors joined the hospital staff, studying various medical fields under the guidance of their senior colleagues.
In 1975, the N.I. Pirogov Hospital celebrated its 100-year anniversary. On October 1975, the hospital was awarded the “Badge of Honor” Order.
From the 1980s to the mid 2000s, the hospital underwent massive reconstruction. Many new diagnostic and therapeutic technologies were implemented. During that time,
the burn center, the gastroduodenal bleeding center and the hemodialysis, endoscopy and ultrasound diagnostics departments were created.
The anesthesiology department and ICU received necessary equipment and
the OB/GYN, traumatology, urology, septic surgery, neurosurgery and pediatric surgery departments were modernized.
Thanks to the National Project “Health” and a regional program for modernizing healthcare in the Samara region, many therapeutic departments were renovated and received new radiologic, endoscopic and ultrasound equipment. Also, the laboratory was completely rebuilt.
The main asset of the hospital is its dedicated and professional staff. Many talented and experienced doctors, well-known in the city and beyond, continue to work here.

In the previous years, the hospital was led by brilliant physicians such as V.N. Rozhansky, L.N. Mukhanov, I.A. Sokursky, S.F. Kuzmenko and many others. It was in N.I. Pirogov hospital where the future People’s Comissar (Minister) of Healthcare of Soviet Union N.A. Semashko began his career. Also, the Chief Physician in 1970s, V.I.Kalinin, became the Minister of Healthcare for the Russian Federation in 1990.